Bibliography – Policy and Issues

Click on the name of the book/author to read about the book

Aldrich, Daniel. (2012). Building Resilience: Social Capital and Post-Disaster Recovery.

Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN: 978-0226012889

            Building Resilience highlights the critical role of social capital in the ability of a community to withstand disaster and rebuild both the infrastructure and the ties that are at the foundation of any community. Dr. Aldrich is an Associate Professor at Purdue University and was a AAAs Science and Technology Fellow with USAID.

 

Bacchus, William I. (1974). Foreign Policy and the Bureaucratic Process: The State Department’s Country Director System.

Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN: 978-0691618357

 

Bacchus, William I. (1997). The Price of American Foreign Policy: Congress, the Executive, and Foreign Affairs Funding.

University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN: 978-0271025940

An insider’s account of how constitutional struggles between the executive and legislative branches interact with budgetary mechanisms to affect the implementation of U.S. foreign policy. In this first in-depth study of the process by which U.S. foreign policy is funded, William Bacchus draws on more than twenty years’ experience in government to analyze the uneasy interplay between the executive and legislative branches as decisions about priorities and policies are made. He begins by examining historical trends in foreign affairs budgeting, then shows how budget proposals are originated in the Executive branch and how they are affected by the complexities of congressional appropriation and authorization, and concludes with a look at “myths” about budgeting and suggestions for improving the system.

Bacchus supports his analysis with case studies that link constitutional issues with the everyday governmental activity of matching limited resources to policy priorities. He reviews not only difficulties of coordination faced by the Executive branch but also Congress’s bid for a greater voice in foreign policy, ranging from the Contra Aid hearings to the 1995 confrontations over funding levels and reorganization of executive agencies.

            The Price of American Foreign Policy provides a better understanding of the budget process as it affects our ability to carry out an effective foreign policy and demonstrates the need for enhanced mutual trust between the branches of government if our national interests are to be protected.

Bill Bacchus was a FSO who was instrumental in drafting the 1980 Foreign Service Act and did a study called State 2000 between the administrations of George H.W. Bush and Bill Clinton. He spent his working life in the D.C. area, moved to management positions at USAID in 1993 including Executive Director of USAID’s Quality Council. He retired in 2001.

 

Barton, Rick (2018) Peace Works: America’s Unifying Role in a Turbulent World.

Bosnia, Rwanda, Haiti, Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria – a quarter-century of stumbles in America’s pursuit of a more peaceful and just world. American military interventions have cost thousands of lives and billions of dollars, yet we rarely manage to enact positive and sustainable change. In Peace Works, ambassador and global conflict leader Rick Barton uses a mix of stories, history and analysis for a transformative approach to foreign affairs and offers concrete and attainable solutions for the future. The book begins and ends in Syria – the ultimate failure of our current approach to foreign policy, and with devastating consequences,

The son of an American diplomat, Amb. Rick Barton’s diplomatic career began in 1990, when he was selected as an election trainer and observer in Haiti for the National Democratic Institute (NDI) and also volunteered in Poland and Ethiopia. In 1994, he became the founding director of the Office of Transition Initiatives (OTI) within the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) to advance peaceful democratic change in conflict-prone places such as Bosnia, Rwanda, Haiti, Liberia, and Mindanao in the Philippines.

Barton was appointed Deputy High Commissioner of the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR) in Geneva, Switzerland in 1999. He left that post in 2001 and became the Frederick Schultz Professor at Princeton’s Woodrow Wilson School. From 2002 to 2009 Barton was Co-Director of the Post-Conflict Reconstruction Project at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), where he served as an expert adviser to the Iraq Study Group, led conflict-related working groups for the United States Institute of Peace and the Princeton Project on National Security, and produced reports on Iraq, Afghanistan, Sudan, Pakistan, religion in conflict, measurement of progress, and U.S. legislative policy.

Barton attained the rank of ambassador in 2009, when President Obama named him the U.S. Representative to the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations (ECOSOC), working on development, peacebuildingclimate change, and human rights with Ambassador Susan Rice. During that time, Barton was actively engaged in the creation of UN Women, the advancement of the UN Peacebuilding Commission, the Millennium Development Goals summit, the suspension of Libya’s voting rights on the UN Human Rights Commission, Haiti’s post-earthquake reconstruction, Democracy Fund initiatives, and efforts to better align U.S. and UN development country programs.

Secretary of State Hillary Clinton selected Barton to serve as the first Assistant Secretary of the Bureau of Conflict and Stabilization Operations (CSO), and he was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on March 2012. CSO was established after the State Department’s Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review (QDDR), succeeding the Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CRS). Barton’s work at the UN and CSO led to a 2013 Distinguished Honor Award from the Department of State.  Barton stepped down as Assistant Secretary on September 30, 2014.

A lecturer at Princeton’s Woodrow Wilson School, Barton co-directs the University’s Scholars in the Nation’s Service Initiative (SINSI) with his wife, Kit Lunney. In the fall of 2016 he was an Annenberg Scholar at Principia College in Illinois and serves on the Boards of the Institute for Sustainable Communities and the Alliance for Peacebuilding.

 

Bathrick, David. (1981). Agricultural Credit for Small Farm Development: Policies and Practices. Boulder,

CO: Westview Press. Policy and Issues ISBN: 978-0865310377

David Bathrick was a USAID FSO Agriculture Officer.

 

Berg, Alan. and Robert J. Muscat. (1973). Nutrition Factor: Its Role in National Development.

Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.  ISBN: 978-0815709145

Alan Berg, who recently celebrated his 80th birthday, is internationally acknowledged as the person most responsible for placing nutrition on the international development agenda and for having it solidly ensconced in the programs of the US government and the World Bank. His seminal 1973 book The Nutrition Factor, written while a Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution, was nominated for the National Book Award. Berg worked during the Kennedy and Johnson years at The White House where he co-chaired a White House Task Force on Nutrition, was active in expanding the scope of the US government’s Food for Peace progr, served in India where (serving with USAID) he headed the US government’s first international nutrition program, and served from 1973 to 1995 as the senior nutrition officer of the World Bank, where he was called ‘the conscience of the Bank on hunger issues’. In 2008, Berg was honored as one of the first recipients of the UN Achievement Award for Lifelong Service to Nutrition, being introduced then as ‘a global giant in nutrition history’.

 

Berg, Robert J. and Jennifer Seymour Whitaker, Eds., “Strategies for African Development.”

University of California Press (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London), 1986 ISBN 0-520-05784-8, also issued in paperback (ISBN 0-529-05782-1).  Also published in French by the Nouveaux Horizons imprint of Economica (Paris) in 1990.

This book is a collection of commissioned papers by leading authorities on Africa, as well as the final report of The Committee for African Development Strategies, co-sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations and the Overseas Development Council. The Committee itself consisted of some of the leading American corporate and civil society figures of the time.  Perhaps the most enduring of the Committee’s recommendations was the establishment of a special Congressional line item for Africa that would be unencumbered by sectoral allocations. This stimulated creation of the African Development Fund. The thesis of the book (aid in exchange for better governance) was taken up explicitly from the Committee’s report by the UN’s Special Session on Africa (1986) and adopted as official UN policy vis-a-vis Africa.

 

Robert Berg joined USAID in 1965 as a junior management intern, rose to senior finance officer for Africa, served in Nigeria, then spent much of the 1970s inculcating the New Directions legislation into design, implementation and evaluation policies, the latter as founding director of USAID’s office of evaluation (1978-82) and founding OECD/DAC Chair of evaluation (1980-1982).  He resigned from AID in 1982 and became President of the International Development Conference (a coalition of over 100 CEOs of development institutions) at the time of publication.  He was later a senior advisor to four parts of the United Nations (UNICEF, UNESCO, UNDP and UN Economic Commission for Africa). He also proposed and innovated the first UN-system wide initiative that brought the Bretton Woods institutions and the UN system into substantive partnership for the first time. Berg was also a Senior Fellow of the Overseas Development Council, and Vice President of the Society for International Development (Rome).

 

Berg, Robert, Eds., “Cooperation for International Development”

Lynne Rienner Publishers (Boulder, Colorado), 1989, ISBN 1-55576-166-6, also in paperback (ISBN 1-55587-167-4).

This book is the result of a major study on US-developing country relations, organized by Ralph Smuckler of Michigan State University and the two co-editors. The result was a report (Smuckler and Berg, with Gordon) “New Challenges, New Opportunities: U.S. Cooperation for International Growth and Development in the 1990s.” The book describes changes in developing countries that were occurring much faster than the evolution of U.S. policy towards the Third World.  It called for new development cooperation strategies and policies designed to meet the emerging global challenges of the 1990s.  The authors explored such issues as U.S. interests in Third World development, debt reduction strategies, the implications of the environmental crisis, appropriate goals for U.S. development cooperation, public opinion toward development cooperation, and the management of U.S. policies and programs.

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Buttari Juan. Employment, Industrial Concentration and Technology. (1978)

Coordinator, leading contributor and editor. Book in Spanish published by Ediciones SIAP, Argentina.

This study is comprised by a number of analyses of factors affecting the demand of labor in Latin America.  The focus is on the interaction between changes in labor productivity, the sectoral and firm size structure of Latin American economies, industrial concentration, and technological changes on the one hand and labor demand on the other.  The study applied relatively new methodologies to the analysis of the dynamics of technological change and the generation of productive employment.  The study was a joint product of the effort of analysts in diverse research centers throughout the Americas.

Juan J Buttari is a former Foreign Service economist having served in posts in Central America, Haiti and Washington D.C.  His last position with USAID was as Chief Economist for Africa.  Prior to his service with USAID he had held positions with the Brookings Institution, the United Nations Development Program and the International Labor Office.  He has provided consulting services in economics, among others, to the World Bank and the Organization of American States and a number of private firms.  Mr. Buttari has taught at Georgetown and American Universities and holds a Ph.D. and M.A. in economics from Georgetown University and B.A. from the University of Puerto Rico.

 

Buttrari Juan. Employment and Labor Force in Latin America : A Review at National and Regional Levels. (1979)

Technical Coordinator, Leading Contributor and Editor. Organization of American States, Washington, D.C.

This work provides an overview of the of labor markets in Latin American countries and analyses of factors affecting their change over time.  It thus deals with issues such as population and labor force characteristics, migration flows, sectorial distribution of product and employment, differentials in labor productivity, levels of unemployment and characteristics of the unemployed.  The study was in response to concerns widely held at the time that countries in Latin America were not being able to sustain productive employment generation in support of rising standards of living.  The effort linked the contributions of economic analysts throughout the Americas.

 

Buttari Juan. The Wage Structure in LAFTA Countries. (1979) Collaborating author with Jorge Salazar.

Book in Spanish published by Ediciones SIAP, Argentina.

Wages and labor costs were adjusted to the individuals’ skills required for well carefully defined occupations – experience, education, degree of initiative — as well as for institutional variables such as industry, firm size, and degree of unionization in eleven Latin American countries.  The studies were thus able to assess the relative importance of various factors in the determination of payment for labor and rely on net wage differences in assessing wage structures

 

Butterfield, Samuel H. (2004). U.S. Development Aid — An Historic First: Achievements and Failures in the Twentieth Century.

Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN: 978-0313319103

The first comprehensive account of U.S. development assistance policies and their implementation in Africa, Asia and Latin America, this book is a singular contribution to the literature on so-called Third World development. The book traces the changes in U.S. aid strategy and policies over the decades following President Truman’s groundbreaking Point Four program initiative in 1949, assessing both the achievements and challenges.

Sam Butterfield served with USAID in Tanganyika, Sudan and Tanzania before being appointed Nepal mission director from 1975-80. HE retired to his hometown of Moscow, Idaho where he taught at the University of Idaho before returning to overseas work in Botswana and Nepal. He passed away in Idaho in 2008.

 

Chang, Ann Mei (2019). Lean Impact: how to innovate for radically greater social good.

Hoboken, NJ. Wiley. ISBN-13: 978-1119506607; ISBN-10: 1119506603.

Despite enormous investments of time and money, are we making a dent on the social and environmental challenges of our time? What if we could exponentially increase our impact? Around the world, a new generation is looking beyond greater profits, for meaningful purpose. But, unlike business, few social interventions have achieved significant impact at scale. Inspired by the modern innovation practices popularized by bestseller The Lean Startup that have fueled technology breakthroughs touching every aspect of our lives, LEAN IMPACT turns our attention to a new goal–achieving radically greater social good.

Social change is far more complicated than building a new app. It requires more listening, more care, and more stakeholders. To make a lasting difference, solutions must be embraced by beneficiaries, address root causes, and include an engine that can accelerate growth to reach the scale of the needs. Lean Impact offers bold ideas to reach audacious goals through customer insight, rapid experimentation and iteration, and a relentless pursuit of impact.  Whether you are a nonprofit, social enterprise, triple bottom line company, foundation, government agency, philanthropist, impact investor, or simply donate your time and money, Lean Impact is an essential guide to maximizing social impact and scale.

Ann Mei Chang was Chief Innovation Officer and Executive Director of USAID”s Global Development Lab from 2013 to 2016. brings a unique perspective from across sectors, from her years as a Silicon Valley executive to her most recent experience as Chief Innovation Officer at USAID. She brings the book to life with inspiring stories from interviews spanning more than 200 organizations across the U.S. and around the world. She was previously the Chief Innovation Officer at Mercy Corps and served the US Department of State as Senior Advisor for Women and Technology in the Secretary’s Office of Global Women’s Issues.

Prior to her pivot to the public and social sector, Ann Mei was a seasoned technology executive, with more than 20 years’ experience at such leading companies as Google, Apple, and Intuit, as well as at a range of startups. As Senior Engineering Director at Google, she led worldwide engineering for mobile applications and services, delivering 20x growth to $1 billion in annual revenues in just three years. Ann Mei currently serves on the boards of BRAC USA and IREX, is a nonresident fellow at the Brookings Institution, and is a visiting fellow at the Center for Global Development. She earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Computer Science from Stanford University, is a member of the Aspen Institute’s Henry Crown Fellows’ class of 2011, and was recognized as one of the “Women In the World: 125 Women of Impact” by Newsweek/The Daily Beast in 2013.

Connerley, Ed, Kent Eaton, and Paul Smoke. (2010). Making Decentralization Work: Democracy, Development, and Security.

New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 978-1588267320

It is increasingly difficult to find developing countries whose leaders have not debated or implemented some type of decentralization reform. But has decentralization worked? Does it actually help a country to deepen democratic governance, promote economic development, or enhance public security? Under what conditions does it justify the enthusiasm of those who have pushed so successfully for its adoption? The authors of this volume sift through the accumulating evidence to assess how well decentralization has fared. Focusing on consequences rather than causes, their goal is to inform future interventions in support of decentralized governance by showcasing some of the important trade-offs that it has generated so far. Ed Connerley is senior adviser for decentralization and local governance in the USAID Office of Democracy and Governance, providing technical leadership and field support for AID missions around the world.

 

Crowe, Philip Kingsland (1970). World Wildlife: The Last Stand. Charles Scribners & Sons.

No summary has been found for this book.

Philip Crowe had been a director of the World Wildlife Fund and a member of the advisory council of the African Wildlife Leadership Foundation. He also published The Empty Ark in 1967 and Out of the Mainstream:Fishing Remembrances around the World in 1970.

Philip K. Crowe, an American diplomat, conservationist, and author. Following his graduation from the University of Virginia, Crowe began his long career as a reporter at the New York Evening Post. From 1935 to 1937 Crowe was an explorer and big game hunter in French Indo-China. In 1937 he married his first wife Irene Pettus with whom he had three children. Crowe spent the next several years working in advertising first for Life magazine and later for Fortune magazine until the start of World War II. From 1941 to 1944 he served as the chief of secret intelligence for the Office of Strategic Services in the China-Burma-India theater. Following the war, Crowe returned to his position on the advertising staff of Fortune magazine. His diplomatic career started in 1948 as the American special representative of the Economic Administration in China. In 1953, he received his first ambassadorial appointment as United States Ambassador to Ceylon, now Sri Lanka, where he served until 1956. In 1954 he was also the United States delegate to the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East. Following his term as Ambassador to Ceylon, Crowe served as the special assistant to Secretary of State John Foster Dulles from 1957 to 1959. Following his term as United States Ambassador to the Union of South Africa, from 1959 to 1961, Crowe, an avid conservationist, led six Wildlife Missions during the 1960’s for the World Wildlife Fund. Crowe had been a director of the World Wildlife Fund and a member of the advisory council of the African Wildlife Leadership Foundation. Crowe wrote six books on nature and wildlife. He then returned to the diplomatic service as the United States Ambassador to Norway from 1969 to 1973. This was immediately followed with a term as the United States Ambassador to Denmark from 1973 to 1975. In 1975, Crowe married his second wife Suzanne Noregaard by whom he had one daughter, and retired from diplomatic service. Crowe received numerous honors during his lifetime.

 

Cylke, Owen and Jonathan Cook, Donald Larson, John Nash, Pamela Stedman-Edwards (co-editors). 2010. Vulnerable Places, Vulnerable People: Trade Liberalization, Rural Poverty and the Environment. World Bank Publications.

Washington, D.C. ISBN-13: 978-0821380994. http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-8099-4

While some argue that trade liberalization has raised incomes and led to environmental protection in developing countries, others claim that it generates neither poverty reduction nor sustainability. The detailed case studies in this book demonstrate that neither interpretation is universally correct, given how much depends on specific policies and institutions that determine “on the ground” outcomes. The studies underscore the importance of evaluating trade from a perspective that pays attention to environmental and social vulnerability and understands the linkages between poverty reduction and environmental protection. The lessons drawn provide a critical first step in developing the appropriate response options needed to ensure that trade plays a positive role in promoting truly sustainable development.

Owen Cylke served as a senior officer at the U.S. Agency for International Development. Over a twenty-five year career there, he served as deputy assistant administrator for Food and Voluntary Assistance, director of the U.S. Economic Assistance Mission to India and deputy director in Afghanistan and Egypt. He retired with the rank of Career Minister. After leaving USAID, he has been director of the World Wildlife Fund Macroeconomics Program Office, has been engaged as a senior policy advisor with the Tata Energy Research Institute, National Environmental Policy Institute, and Winrock International. Earlier he served as president of the Association of Big Eight Universities, a consortium of mid-west research universities. Mr. Cylke is a graduate of Yale University and the Yale Law School. He served in Ethiopia as a Peace Corps Volunteer at the Haile Selassie I University, Faculty of Law.

 

Eberly, Don. (2008). The Rise of Global Civil Society: Building Nations from the Ground Up.

New York, NY: Encounter Books ISBN: 978-1594032141

Compassion is America’s most consequential export, argues Don Eberly in this new book surveying the rise of civil society around the world. Once the distinctive characteristic of American democracy, philanthropy, volunteerism, public-private partnerships and social entrepreneurship are spreading across the globe. This trend is the seedbed for long-term cultivation of democratic norms. According to Eberly, the key to meeting development challenges in the future will be to harness the best of both the public and the private sector to experiment with approaches that rely on markets and on civil society, and that engage the poor as partners.

 

Fell, Arthur and Anne de Lattre. (1984). The Club du Sahel: an experiment in international cooperation. Paris, FR: OECD.

This study reviews the experience of the Club du Sahel set up in 1976 under the joint aegis of the Sahel countries and the OECD to support the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (known by its French acronym – CILSS).  In that role the Club du Sahel addressed the damage from half a decade of drought in this sub-region of West Africa and promoted concerted action by the Sahel countries and donors for its long-term development.  The authors assess results to date (to 1984) and reflect on lessons of the Club du Sahel experience for international development cooperation.  Anne de Lattre was director of the Club du Sahel Secretariat from its inception in 1976 and Arthur M. Fell was Advisor in the Secretariat 1978-1984 detached from USAID.

Arthur M.Fell joined USAID’s Office of the General Council (Africa Bureau) in 1969 after practicing law in New York City.  His USAID assignments were: Attorney-Advisor, Africa Bureau, General Council/USAID; Advisor, African Development Bank/Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire; Deputy Regional Development Officer, Cameroon; Deputy USAID Director, Senegal; Club du Sahel Secretariat; Mission Director, Regional Economic Development Services Office/Nairobi; and Mission Director, Regional Development Services Office/Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.  After USAID from 1990-2000 he was Principal Administrator/Chief of Section, Peer Review and Policy Monitoring Division, Development Co-operation Directorate, OECD which is Secretariat to the Development Assistance Committee (DAC)/OECD.

 

Fell Arthur M, Hyuun-sik Chang and Michal Laird. (1999).  A Comparison of Management Systems for Development Cooperation in OECD/DAC Members

This study describes the aid management systems of DAC Members, analyses and compares the architecture of those systems and provides specific examples how functions and issues are treated in various systems.  It also presents the main themes of reflection within the DAC and key policy statements as of 1999.

Arthur M. Fell was Principal Administrator/Chief of Section, Peer Review and Policy Monitoring Division, Development Co-operation Directorate, OECD.

 

Gordon, Lincoln (1964). The Alliance for Progress: A New Deal for Latin America. Harvard Univ. Press.

No summary has been found for this book.

An economist, Dr. Gordon was chief of the Economic Cooperation Administration in London from 1955-1961. After the election of President John F. Kennedy in 1960, Dr. Gordon served on a task force that developed the Alliance for Progress, the program that provided aid intended to dissuade Latin America from revolution and socialism. Dr. Gordon took up the ambassadorship in Brazil in 1961 at a time of high inflation and just as a left-wing president, João Goulart, took office. After returning from Brazil in 1967, Dr. Gordon, in addition to his State Department role, coordinated aid to Latin America through the Alliance for Progress. He later became President of Johns Hopkins University.

Hammergren, Linn A. (1983). Development and the Politics of Administrative Reform: Lessons from Latin America. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

ISBN: 978-0865319561

In 1986, while working as an in-house consultant for USAID/Peru (in theory a break from university teaching), volunteered to design a new judicial reform project, and once immersed in the topic, Linn never looked back. After 12 more years as a USAID consultant managing their Latin American projects in the field, Linn went back to Washington on a USAID fellowship to write up the experience and got hooked on the writing as well. Many years later, 10 of them with the World Bank, she is again consulting and writing and still learning the issues.

 

Hammergren, Linn A. (1997). The Politics Of Justice And Justice Reform In Latin America: The Peruvian Case In Comparative Perspective. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

ISBN: 978-0813334189

The Politics of Justice and Justice Reform in Latin America offers an introduction to the traditional roles and operations of Latin American justice systems and the origins, objectives, and potential of contemporary reform efforts. Its detailed focus on the Peruvian experience is complemented by shorter case studies on Colombia, El Salvador, and Costa Rica and comparative examples from numerous other countries. It views justice reform as both a technical and political process, demonstrating how evolving understandings in both areas have increased conflicts over the limits and direction of future change. The book has special relevance for Peruvianists, but its unique comparative overview of Latin America’s orphan branch of government make it a valuable addition to courses on Latin American and comparative politics. Its emphasis on the broader dilemmas posed by sector reform and its analysis of the evolution of reform policy and politics will be of interest to students of comparative legal systems, public policy, and political change in both developed and developing regions.

 

Hammergren, Linn A. (2007). Envisioning Reform: Conceptual and Practical Obstacles to Improving Judicial Performance in Latin America. University Park, PA: Penn State University Press.

ISBN: 978-0271029337

Judicial reform became an important part of the agenda for development in Latin America early in the 1980s, when countries in the region started the process of democratization. Although considerable progress has been made already in strengthening the judiciary and its supporting infrastructure (police, prosecutors, public defense counsel, the private bar, law schools, and the like), much remains to be done. Linn Hammergren’s book aims to turn the spotlight on the problems in the movement toward judicial reform in Latin America over the past two decades and to suggest ways to keep the movement on track toward achieving its multiple, though often conflicting, goals.

 

Hammergren, Linn A. (2014). Justice Reform and Development: Rethinking Donor Assistance to Developing and Transitional Countries (Law, Development and Globalization). New York, NY: Routledge.

ISBN: 978-04157399

This book explores the objectives pursued in donor programs, the methods used to advance them, and the underlying assumptions and strategies. It emphasizes the unexpected and sometimes unpleasant consequences of ignoring not only political and societal constraints but also advances in our technical approaches to performance improvement, the one area where the First World has a comparative advantage. The geographic scope of the work is broad, incorporating examples from Eastern and Central Europe, Latin America, Africa, and the Asia-Pacific region as well as from several First World nations. Justice Reform and Development examines First World assistance to justice or “rule of law” reforms in developing and transitional societies, arguing that its purported failure is vastly exaggerated, largely because of unrealistic expectations as to what could be accomplished. Change nonetheless is needed if the programs are to continue and would be best based on targeting specific performance problems, incorporation of donor countries’ experience with their own reforms, and greater attention to relevant research.

 

Harriman, William Averell (1947). United States President’s Committee on Foreign Aid. Govt. Printing Office.

Averell Harriman was a banker, governor of New York, Minister to England, Russia and ECA representative to Europe from 1948-1950 with the rank of Ambassador. President Roosevelt sent Harriman to London in 1941 to help Prime Minister Winston Churchill with Britain’s war effort, and the following year named him ambassador to Moscow.

 

Harriman was present when the Atlantic Charter and the Four Freedoms were framed. He also took part in the Big Three meetings of FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Teheran and Yalta, and the Potsdam meetings among Stalin, Churchill and President Harry S. Truman, who named him Ambassador to Britain in 1946.

 

Harriman became Secretary of Commerce and chairman of the President’s Committee on Foreign Aid, which laid the basis for the Marshall Plan. In 1948 he was the U.S. Representative for the European Recovery Program.

 

Harrison, Lawrence E. (2013). Jews, Confucians and Protestants: Cultural Capital and the End of Multiculturalism. Lanham, MD:  Rowman & Littlefield.

ISBN: 978-1442219632

Multiculturalism—the belief that no culture is better or worse than any other; it is merely different—has come to dominate Western intellectual thought and to serve as a guide to domestic and foreign policy, and development aid. But what if multiculturalism is flawed? What if some cultures are more prone to progress than others and more successful at creating the cultural capital that encourages democratic governance, social justice and the elimination of poverty for all? In Jews, Confucians, and Protestants: Cultural Capital and the End of Multiculturalism, Lawrence E. Harrison takes the politically incorrect stand that all cultures are not created equal. Analyzing the performance of 117 countries, grouped by predominant religion, Harrison argues for the superiority of those cultures that emphasize Jewish, Confucian and Protestant values. A concluding chapter outlines ways in which cultural change may substantially transform societies within a generation.

Lawrence E. Harrison directed USAID missions in the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Haiti and Nicaragua between 1965 and 1981. He is now a senior research fellow and adjunct lecturer at the Fletcher School at Tufts University.

 

Harrison, Lawrence E. (2006). The Central Liberal Truth: How Politics Can Change A Culture and Save It from Itself. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

ISBN: 978-0195331806

Which cultural values, beliefs and attitudes best promote democracy, social justice and prosperity? How can we use the forces that shape cultural change to promote these values in the Third World? In this provocative and controversial book, Lawrence E. Harrison provides the answers. Drawing on a three-year research project that explored the cultural values of dozens of nations, Harrison argues that it is cultural values that determine whether countries are democratic and rich or authoritarian and poor. To prove his point, he presents 25 values that operate very differently around the globe, including one’s influence over destiny, the importance attached to education, the extent to which people identify with and trust others, and the role of women in society. He also offers a series of practical guidelines for developing nations and lagging minority groups.

 

Harrison, Lawrence. (1993) Who Prospers: How Cultural Values Shape Economic and Political Success.   Basic Books. ISBN-13: 978-0465091676

Why have East Asian immigrants done so well in the United States in the face of adversity and discrimination? Why have the Chinese done so much better outside China than inside? Why have Japan, Taiwan, and Korea grown so rapidly and equitably in the second half of the twentieth century? What explains Spain’s transformation into a high-growth democracy after centuries of poverty and authoritarianism? Why has Brazil’s economy grown faster in this century than that of any other Latin American country? And what explains the paradox of America’s blacks, two-thirds of whom have made it into the middle class mainstream, while the remaining one-third languishes in the poverty of the ghetto? According to Lawrence E. Harrison, the author of this myth-shattering but ultimately hopeful book, culture–values and attitudes–provides the key to unlocking these mysteries. Drawing on three decades of experience in Latin American economic and social development as well as extensive research elsewhere, Harrison shows how it is the cultural values of a people, with respect to work, education, austerity, excellence, family, and community, that largely explain why some succeed while others do not. Harrison argues that it is the erosion of these values that lies behind America’s decline, evident, for example, in lagging competitiveness, declining real income for most workers, low savings rates, the persistent and growing budget deficit, and the savings and loan scandal, not to mention growing divisiveness within the society. Understanding how culture can facilitate–or impede–progress is crucial to a renaissance in the United States, just as it is to development in Third World countries mired in authoritarianism, economic stagnation, and social inequality. Who Prospers? suggests measures to promote cultural change that nurtures progress, both at home and abroad.

 

Harrison, Lawrence (1985). Underdevelopment is a State of Mind: The Latin-America Case. Madison Books. ISBN-10: 1568331479; ISBN-13: 978-15683314

One of the first studies to examine Latin America’s rocky development as cultural, rather than colonial, byproduct.

 

Hough, Richard L. (2003). The Nation-States: Concert or Chaos. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

ISBN: 978-0761826217

This book is a thoughtful and well-argued response to the increasingly insistent predictions of the demise of the nation-states as the fundamental way political power is organized in our world. The author examines what he terms “the messy, conflictive realities impinging on the nation- state system,” and concludes that the nation-state is not in as bad shape as commentators have portrayed and should be seen as a firm but adaptive nexus in the face of changes that challenge world order.

Richard Hough is a retired USAID officer. He was also on the staff of the American Institute for Free Labor Development, where he concentrated on laud reform programs in Central America, and has taught at Redlands University, the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, the National War College and Georgetown University. He has written widely on international affairs and public policy. This book grew out of a course the author taught at Georgetown University.

 

Hope, Kempe Ronald (2017). Corruption and Governance in Africa: Swaziland, Kenya,Nigeria. New York: Palgrave Macmillan/Springer.

ISBN: 978-3-319-50190-1 https://www.palgrave.com/us/book/9783319501901

This book analyzes the corruption phenomenon in Africa and how to combat it from a governance perspective with illustrated case studies from three of the most corrupt of those nations covering, respectively, the Southern Africa region (Swaziland); the Eastern Africa region (Kenya); and the Western Africa region (Nigeria). Drawing on the available data, research literature, and field practice experience, the nature and extent of corruption are identified; the factors influencing the causes and determining the consequences of corruption are delineated; measures that have been put in place to control corruption are outlined and discussed; and new policy solutions are proposed and advocated to more effectively control the corruption menace in Africa.  The volume offers a comprehensive and authoritative account of what we know about corruption in Africa utilizing a cross-section of case studies from the three most corrupt countries in Anglophone Africa. It draws on the author’s extensive field experience in advising African governments on anti-corruption policy.

Kempe Ronald Hope, Sr. served with USAID as the Manager of the Governance and Economic Management Assistance Program (GEMAP) in Liberia. He was also a senior official with the United Nations. Dr. Hope is currently a Director with Development Practice International, Canada.

Hope, Kempe Ronald (2016). Police Corruption and Police Reforms in Developing Societies. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press/Taylor and Francis.

ISBN: 9781498731874. https://www.crcpress.com/Police-Corruption-and-Police-Reforms-in-Developing- Societies/Hope-Sr/p/book/9781498731874

Much of the literature on police corruption and police reforms is dominated by case studies of societies classified as developed. However, under the influence of globalization, developing societies have become a focal point of scholarly interest and examination. Police Corruption and Police Reforms in Developing Societies provides critical analyses of the extent and nature of police corruption and misconduct in developing societies. It also examines police reform measures that have been implemented or are still necessary to control and mitigate the effects of police corruption in developing societies. This book offers a comprehensive and authoritative account of the causes and consequences of police corruption. It also relates lessons learned from police reform efforts that have been made in a wide cross section of developing societies spanning several continents.

The book is divided into five sections covering: (1) Theoretical and analytical perspectives on police corruption and police reforms, including the role of the rule of law and training as a reform tool; (2) Case studies on African societies; (3) Case studies on societies in Asia and the Pacific; (4) Case studies on societies in Latin America and the Caribbean; and (5) A concluding chapter containing thorough summaries of all other chapters for quick scanning and reference.

Police Corruption and Police Reforms in Developing Societies is a significant contribution to shifting attention from the dominance of developed societies in the literature on police corruption and police reforms. It also bridges the gap between research and practice, with chapters that bring a wealth of practical experience to their analyses. The book provides new insights on the problem of police corruption in developing societies as well as approaches and challenges to police reforms.

Hope, Kempe Ronald. (2015). African Political Economy: Contemporary Issues in Development. New York: Routledge/Taylor and Francis, 2nd edition.  ISBN: 9781563249426 (paperback); ISBN: 9781563249419 (hardback). First edition published by M.E. Sharpe Publishers, 1997.

Beginning in the 1970s and worsening in the 1980s, Africa has been a continent in rapid decline. That tragic situation has resulted in the 1980s being declared as Africa’s “lost decade”. This is a multidisciplinary book that analyzes the problems and issues of development in Africa along with the attempts at, and outcomes of, policy reform measures that have been implemented to surmount those problems. Topics covered include the economic crisis in Africa, poverty, the growth and impact of the subterranean (informal) sector, urbanization and urban management, uneven development, the socio-economic context of AIDS, bureaucratic corruption and reform, the role of decentralization in the development process, and proposed development solutions.

 

Hope, Kempe Ronald. (2015). Development in the Third World: From Policy Failure to Policy Reform. New York: Routledge/Taylor and Francis, 2nd edition.

ISBN: 9781563247330 (paperback); ISBN: 9781563247323 (hardback). First edition published by M. E. Sharpe Publishers, 1996. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9781315285481

The elusiveness of development has been a source of serious economic distress for the great majority of Third World nations. In fact, the ills of many of those countries during the past two decades or so have been related, in one way or another, to their lack of economic development. Such elusive development has resulted in, among other things, tremendous public sector deficits, unmanageable debt, deteriorating physical infrastructure, rapid urbanization, corrupt bureaucracies, high rates of unemployment, widespread poverty, and spiraling inflation. Consequently, a vigorous debate now exists on the development orthodoxy and thinking that prevailed since World War II. The debate centers on the relevance of development economics and the need for alternative frameworks that recognize the limitations inherent in the dogma that was derived from some of the past development formulations.

Economic development in the Third World has been elusive for a great many reasons. This book outlines and analyzes what are considered the primary issues pertaining and contributing to such a state of affairs, and then offers some specific policy responses and an optimistic policy- oriented viewpoint on the development prospects of the Third World within the present world economic order. The book argues that development is achievable in the Third World with the continued efforts and assistance of the international development agencies and nongovernmental organizations, coupled with a modified policy framework, implemented by the Third World nations, that emphasizes liberalized economic policies.

 

Hope, Kempe Ronald (2013). The Political Economy of Development in Kenya. New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

ISBN: 9781623565343. https://www.bloomsbury.com/us/the-political-economy-of-development-in-kenya- 9781623565343/

Kenya is a country of geopolitical and economic importance in East Africa. It shares borders with unstable states such as Somalia and Sudan while being a hub for trade, communication, finance, and transportation across the region. Although relatively stable since its independence in 1963, the country still faces poverty, inequality, and corruption. In addition, the contested election of 2007 led to severe ethnic strife that tested its political stability, leading to a new constitution in 2010.  This unique survey by a leading expert on the region provides a critical analysis of the socio-economic development in Kenya from a political economy perspective. It highlights Kenya’s transition from being a centralized state to having a clear separation of powers and analyzes key issues such as economic growth, urbanization, corruption, and reform. The book identifies Kenya’s key socio-development problems and offers solutions to improve both governance and economic performance, making it an essential resource to researchers, academics, and policy makers working on development issues and African politics.

Hope, Kempe Ronald. (2008). Poverty, Livelihoods, and Governance in Africa: Fulfilling the Development Promise. New York: Palgrave Macmillan/Springer. ISBN: 978-0-230-60834-4 (hardcover); ISBN: 978-1-349-37520-2 (softcover). https://www.palgrave.com/br/book/9780230608344

Africa is a continent with abundant natural and human resources. Yet, it has been beset by poor development performance stemming principally from bad political and economic governance and, until recently, had lacked the wherewithal to fulfill its promise of good development outcomes for sustained improvement in the lives of its citizens. In fact, Africa was a region that was characterized by, among other things, frequent conflicts, rampant corruption, neopatrimonialism, weak governance systems and institutions, statist economic policies, persistent poverty, and disease. All of these factors either contributed to, or were a manifestation of, generally unsatisfactory development performance for the continent. However, in recent years, Africa has been on the move positively and this book is about that achievement.

The book also analyzes the outstanding development problems confronting Africa today, and the policies necessary for improving Africa’s governance, economic performance, and the very possible achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

 

Hope, Kempe Ronald. (2002). From Crisis to Renewal: Development Policy and Management in Africa. Leiden: Brill Publishers.

ISBN: 978-90-04-12531-5.

https://brill.com/view/title/7676

This book deals with crisis and renewal in African development policy and management. It digs deep into, takes stock of, and thoroughly analyzes the nature, impact, and future of development policy and management on the continent. It demonstrates the failure of post-independence policy and management in most of Africa, traces the emergence and results of reform measures, and advocates the lessons of success for the rest of Africa derived from Botswana’s approach to sustainable development and its achievement of economic prosperity and the maintenance of political stability and good governance. It concludes, rather optimistically, that the prospects for sustainable development are much better now than they have ever been before with the 21st century likely to be hailed as ‘The African Century’ – bringing with it a durable peace and sustainable growth.

 

Hope, Kempe Ronald (2000). Corruption and Development in Africa: Lessons from Country Case Studies. London. Palgrave Macmillan /Springer.

ISBN 978-0-333-77089-4. https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9780333770894.

From being widespread to systemic, corruption in Africa has reached cancerous proportions and today has a demonstrable negative impact on the development process in the region. Whether in the public or private sphere, corruption results in the abuse and misuse of scarce resources that significantly affect an entire economy through multiplier effects. Corruption is negatively associated with developmental objectives. Controlling or eradicating corruption, therefore, takes on even greater significance in the quest for development.  The entrenchment of corruption in Africa points to the fact that something has gone wrong in the governance of the individual nation—states. Institutions, which are designed for the regulation of the relationships between citizens and the state, are used instead for the personal enrichment of public officials (politicians and bureaucrats) and other corrupt private agents (individuals. groups, businesses). This book provides an authoritative and definitive analysis of the theory, practice and development impact of corruption in Africa. Combating corruption is demonstrated to require greater priority in the quest for African development.

Kevlihan, Rob. (2012). Aid, Insurgencies and Conflict Transformation: When Greed is Good. New York, NY: Routledge Press.

ISBN: 978-0415698665

This book explores the question of how international humanitarian aid affects civil wars and insurgencies, using three case studies: Northern Ireland, South Sudan and Tajikistan.

Rob Kevlihan, whose wife worked for USAID, finds evidence for two distinct effects of aid on international conflicts. First, assistance can alleviate the underlying causes of insurgency movements and facilitate negotiations. Second, however, aid can become a source of revenue for the rebel groups as social-service organizations provide material and financial assistance to victims of the conflict. Kevlihan explains the way insurgency organizations insert themselves as middlemen between international aid organizations and the target population victimized by the conflict in order to increase revenue for their cause. Surprisingly, his research suggests that the greed exhibited by armed rebel groups can have positive effects, depending on the specific conditions of the conflict and type of insurgency movement involved.

 

Kitay, Michael. (1985). Public Land Acquisition in Developing Countries. Olgeschelager, Gunn and Haine.

The book’s thesis is that targeted public land acquisition of corridors of urban land and the urbanization of the corridors is the only effective way to direct and channel explosive urban growth in third world megacities.  The concept envisions that urban planners would identify corridors that could best absorb the inevitable urban growth.  Thereafter municipalities would expropriate the land in the chosen corridors, build roads and other infrastructure, and at the same time acquire parcels of excess land along side of the corridors.  Kitay envisioned that the costs of the land acquisition and the costs of the infrastructure would be recouped by the resale of the excess land to the private sector at an inflated price due to the rapid increase in land values along the corridors.  He proposed that the donor community could train municipal employees to carry out the land acquisition function and, perhaps, finance the initial costs of land acquisition.  Much of the book was devoted to a comparative analysis of LDC expropriation laws, sources of land financing, case studies, and related technical issues.

Mike Kitay was USAID Assistant General Counsel for Housing and Urban Programs when he wrote this book as a Visiting Scholar at Harvard Law School. Michael served as General Counsel with Abt Associates. Previously, Michael was a career Senior Executive Service attorney with the Office of the General Counsel for USAID. At various times, he served as chief counsel for USAID’s Population and Health Bureau, Economic Growth Bureau, Asia Near East Bureau and the Bureau for Private Enterprise. He received a Presidential Rank Award as the father of USAID’s Development Credit Authority and received a Distinguished Career award upon his retirement from USAID. After retiring from USAID, Mr. Kitay was General Counsel with Abt Associates and is presently General Counsel for Plan International. He earned a bachelor’s degree from St. Lawrence University, and a juris doctor from the University of Virginia Law School.

Lancaster, Carol. (1999). Aid to Africa: So Much to Do, So Little Done. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

ISBN: 978-0226468396

Why, despite decades of high levels of foreign aid, has development been so disappointing in most of Sub-Saharan Africa, leading to rising numbers of poor and fueling political instabilities? While not ignoring the culpability of Africans in these problems, Carol Lancaster finds that much of the responsibility is in the hands of the governments and international aid agencies that provide assistance to the region. The first examination of its kind, Aid to Africa investigates the impact of bureaucratic politics, special interest groups, and public opinion in aid-giving countries and agencies. She finds that aid agencies in Africa often misdiagnosed problems, had difficulty designing appropriate programs that addressed the local political environment, and failed to coordinate their efforts effectively.

Carol Lancaster was a scholar and dean of Georgetown University’s School of Foreign Service and among the first to highlight the importance of women’s empowerment as a key part of diplomacy and international development. On a leave of absence from Georgetown, she served as USAID Deputy Administrator from 1993 to 1996,

 

Lancaster, Carol. (2000). Transforming Foreign Aid: United States Assistance in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.

ISBN: 978-0881322910

The phenomenon of foreign aid began at the end of World War II and has survived the Cold War. How should the USA now spend its foreign aid to support its interests and values in the 21st century? In this study, Carol Lancaster takes a look at all US foreign aid programs and asks whether their purposes, organization and management are appropriate to US interests and values in the world of the 21st century. Lancaster finds that US aid in the 21st century, if it is to be an effective tool of US foreign policy, needs to be transformed. Its purposes need to be refocused and its organization and management brought into line with those purposes. Those purposes include support for peacemaking, addressing transnational issues, providing for humane concerns, and responding to humanitarian emergencies. Traditional programs aimed at promoting development, democracy, and economic and political transitions in former socialist countries will not disappear but they will have less priority than in the past. These new sets of purposes, promoting both US interests and values abroad, also offer a policy paradigm around which a new political consensus can be created that will support US aid in the 21st.

 

Lancaster, Carol and Ann Van Dusen. (2005). Organizing U.S. Foreign Aid: Confronting the Challenges of the Twenty-First Century (Global Economy & Development: Monograph Series on Globalization). Washington, DC: Brookings.

ISBN: 978-0815751137

U.S. foreign aid has reached a crisis point. While the amount of aid has increased in recent years, the way it is organized and delivered by the U.S. government has become increasingly fragmented and chaotic. The proliferation of federal agencies engaged in foreign aid has created serious disconnects and inefficiencies in the use of this important tool of U.S. foreign policy. It is time for a change. Here, two well-known experts who have worked extensively in the international development field provide some keen observations on the current disorganization of federal assistance and offer advice on how to make U.S. aid more effective. Several models for streamlining the organization of foreign aid are detailed and recommendations proffered. The authors argue that dramatic change in the way U.S. aid is organized and provided is urgently needed.

 

Lancaster, Carol. (2006). Foreign Aid and Private Sector Development. Providence, RI: Brown University Watson Institute.

URL: http://www.watsoninstitute.org/pub/ForeignAid.pdf

 

Lancaster, Carol. (2006). Foreign Aid: Diplomacy, Development, Domestic Politics. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago.

ISBN: 978-0226470450

 

Lancaster, Carol. (2008). George Bush’s Foreign Aid: Transformation or Chaos?. Washington, DC: Center for Global Development.

ISBN: 978-1933286273

 

LaVoy, Diane. (1999). Participation at USAID: Stories, Lessons, and Challenges: An Anthology of Discussions, Case Studies, and Resources Drawn from Experiences by the U.S. Agency for International Development. Washington, DC: USAID.

URL Link: http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnacg035.pdf  USAID Doc No. PN-ACG-035

“USAID views participation as both an essential feature of effective development work and as a purpose of development itself. Assembled in this anthology are insights, dilemmas, and approaches drawn from the practice of development assistance. They were originally set forth by USAID staff and colleagues in a series of “Participation Forums”-noontime seminars held from early 1994 through 1997-an illustrated in brief case studies-“Participatory Practices: Learning from Experience”-begun in 1996. In contexts ranging from economic reform and environmental planning to conflict resolution and humanitarian assistance, they all explore the practical meaning of “participation.”” Bruce Potter, Island Resources review.

Diane LaVoy was a Senior Policy Advisor for Participatory Development at USAID/W from 1993-1999. She later worked at AED, on the House Subcommittee on Intelligence Community Management, and since 2013 has been a Foreign Affairs Officer in the Office of Diplomacy at the Department of State.

 

Levinson, Jerome and Juan de Onis (1972). The Alliance that Lost its Way: A Critical Report on the Alliance for Progress. Quadrangle Books, Chicago IL.

ISBN-10: 0812961889.
This study is a critical appraisal of the Alliance for Progress by a former senior U.S. administrator of the program and a distinguished New York Times reported with many years of experience in Latin America. It provides background on Latin American affairs before the advent of the Alliance. It discusses many aspects of the alliance in action, such as the role of U.S. business, the limitations of foreign aid, and the efforts to accelerate regional economic integration. It reviews the program’s successes and failures.

Jerome Levinson was a lawyer and senior administrator in USAID’s Latin American Bureau and  former chief of the USAID/Brazil capital development office. He later was a distinguished lawyer in residence at American University specializing in the legal aspects of foreign direct investment.

 

Lewis, Theodore (Ted) Rev. (2014). Theology and the Disciplines of the Foreign Service: The World’s Potential to Contribute to the Church.

ISBN: 1498206050
ISBN-13: 9781498206051.

In the course of Theodore Lewis’ 29 year career in the US Foreign Service, he came upon many significant links with theology. This book tells the story of his discovery of these links and their importance. It is also a story of God bringing good out of human tragedy. Lewis ends by drawing together the implications of these links for natural theology, which deals with how theology ought to relate to the world–and thus is of prime importance for both theology and the world. The salient implication of these links is that the Holy Spirit operating as at Pentecost can bring together the secular with the theological, the academic with the human. And by validating this possibility, the book breaks decisive new ground. In particular, it makes clear the vital contribution that Foreign Service and other craft disciplines can and should make to the restoration of the church and to the advent of a new Pentecost.

Theodore L. Lewis is an Anglican priest and a retired US Foreign Service Officer who served with USAID in Vietnam, DRC, Pakistan and Korea. After service in World War II, he earned advanced degrees from Harvard University and later Virginia Theological Seminary, his ordained vocation having come from exposure to churches of the Global South. Following his Foreign Service retirement, Lewis turned to theological study and writing, privileged by connections with Wycliffe Hall, Oxford University, and the Duke Divinity School. He presently engages in parish ministry.

 

Myers, Desaix (Terry) 2017 – Co-author. “The U.S. Agency for International Development: More Operator then Policy Maker”, chapter in The National Security Enterprise: Navigating the Labyrinth, Roger Z. George. Washington D.C. Georgetown Univ. Press.

ISBN: 9781626164390 (1626164398).

 

Terry Myers’ chapter in the 2nd edition of this book describes USAID’s ambivalence about its role in national security, the importance of foreign service culture and its field orientation in shaping its mission, its sibling rivalry with State, and the limits of Congressional support and public understanding.  The upshot is that for most of its history, USAID has had influence within the national security enterprise in areas where it has predominant capability and responsibility—humanitarian assistance and disaster response, but it has been less effective in affecting policy on issues like stabilization, counter-terrorism, and nation-building, where it has an important role but expectations of its potential have been unrealistic.

 

Desaix (Terry) Myers started his career with USAID as an intern in 1968 riding around Western Kenya on a Peace Corps motorcycle talking to village elders about community development. He joined officially in 1969 to go to East Pakistan as an assistant program officer as it was becoming Bangladesh.  After a ten-year break with the Investor Responsibility Research Center looking at corporate social responsibility, he came back to USAID with tours in Indonesia (private sector officer), Senegal (project development officer), India (deputy director), Indonesia (again) as mission director, and Russia (mission director). He served four months in Burma (Myanmar) as USAID started up its new program in 2012. Terry then taught at the Eisenhower School (Industrial College of the Armed Forces) where he retired and then joined the National War College for six years. Over his 33 years in USAID, I had two stints in Washington, as Nepal Desk Officer and Russia Desk Officer, and short-term TDYs to Afghanistan, Kosovo, Tanzania, and Myanmar.

 

Mellor, John W. (1976). New Economics for Growth: A Strategy for India and the Developing World. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

ISBN: 978-0801409998

India has tried to modernize by concentration on large-scale government-run capital-intensive industry; this is wrong, the author argues. Let the market govern a more labor-intensive, decentralized industry, while imports of fertilizer and technology increase agricultural productivity. There will be more food for the poor, who will find more jobs in small-scale labor-intensive industry, which will export consumer goods to pay for the imports needed to produce more food.

 

Michalopoulos,  Constantine (1989) with Anne O. Krueger and Vernon W. Ruttan. Aid and Development. Johns Hopkins University Press

ISBN-0-8018-3798-8.

The theory and experience of the impact of aid on economic development; the interaction between macro-economic policies and economic assistance; the role of donor and recipient policies and the policy dialogue; sector experience: agriculture; infrastructure, population; USAID country cases: India, Korea, Turkey, Ghana and Ivory Coast; lessons for the future.

Dr. Michalopoulos joined USAID as an Economist in 1969 and left in 1982 as Chief Economist (1981-2) He served only in Washington, mostly in PPC in many jobs including, Chief of the Trade and Payments Division and Director of the Office of Economic Affairs (1978-1980). He also served as Deputy Assistant Administrator for Economic Affairs in IIA (1976-1977) and acting Deputy Director of IDCA (1980-82). After 13 years with USAID he worked for many years at the World Bank retiring there in 2001. His work involved different aspects of AID policy ranging from aid levels, loan terms, and procurement, to analysis and research on various aspects of development policy and aid effectiveness. He received Superior Honor Awards for this work in 1975 and 1982 as well as a Superior Unit Award for his work in the Office of Economic Affairs in 1980. He says” “perhaps one of the awards describes best what I did for a living. The award commended me for  ‘leadership in policy research and analysis over a wide range of international problems affecting the progress of the developing countries and in the formulation of A.I.D. Policy in these areas…”‘

 

Michalopoulos, Constantine (1994) with David G. Tarr. Trade in the New Independent States. World Bank

ISBN 0-8213-3077-2.

The establishment of fifteen new states in the economic space of the former Soviet Union led to serious disruptions in domestic and international trade. This volume analyzes the trade policies and prospects of the new states and recommends approaches that would lead to their more effective integration in the world trading system.

 

Michalopoulos, Constantine (2001). Developing Countries in the WTO. Palgrave

ISBN 0-333-97016-0.

Globalization means that, more than ever before, growth in the developing countries and the reduction of poverty depend on world trade and a well-functioning trade system. This volume reviews developing countries’ trade policies and institutions, and the challenges they face in the World Trade Organization, where the rules that govern the international trading system are set.

 

Michalopoulos, Constantine (2008) Migration Chronicles. Point of View Publishing

ISBN: 978-0-9815270—0-0.

A chronicle of the struggles of a Greek immigrant family to survive and prosper in the U.S. and the lives of other immigrants who crossed paths with the Michalopoulos clan. Partly autobiographical, it is also a historical account of people coping with events that shook the world during the last century like the Armenian genocide, The Jewish holocaust and the Second World War, or uniquely Greek calamities such as the war with Turkey in 1920-1921 and the civil war of the 1940’s.

 

MIchalopoulos, Constantine (2014) Emerging Powers in the WTO. Palgrave/ Macmillan

ISBN 978-1-137-29707-5.

The most important new dimension of international trade in the 21st century is the emergence of a number of powers such as Brazil, China and India that are playing key roles in the global economy and the WTO. But many other developing countries continue to struggle to transform their economies handicapped by institutional constraints and protection against their exports in other developed and developing economies. The volume examines the main factors behind this divergent performance and assesses developing country prospects in light of the changing power structure in the WTO and world trade.

 

Muscat, Robert J. (2002). Investing In Peace: How Development Aid Can Prevent or Promote Conflict. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.

ISBN: 978-0765609793

The problem of failed states and internal conflict in developing nations was pushed to the forefront by the horror of Rwanda and the breakup of Yugoslavia in the past decade, and is now before us as a challenge to nation-building efforts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Is there anything international actors can do to prevent or ameliorate internal conflict and failed states? Are conflict-prevention measures already being attempted, and in some cases succeeding so well that we are unaware of them? If so, what can we learn from them?

This book by retired USAID officer Robert J. Muscat attempts to answer these questions by offering a timely and eye-opening study of the role development  agencies play in conflict-prone situations. The first part of the book, an investigation of the problem of conflict, its different forms and the different approaches to it, centers on nine case studies — four where conflicts were fought and five where conflicts were avoided — and the role of development aid in each. The second part considers the practicalities of an agenda for conflict prevention. Muscat worked for USAID in Thailand, Brazil and Kenya. As the agency’s chief economist, he was economic adviser to the Thai development planning agency and the Malaysian Ministry of Finance, and was planning director for the U.N. Development Program. He has consulted for U.N. agencies and the World Bank, and was a visiting scholar at Columbia’s East Asian Institute and at the Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution at George Mason University.

 

Ngugi, Wilson. “The NSE Prophecy”- Assessing the impact of elections on stock market and quality of life. Sahel Publishing Association.

ISBN-10: 9966183434.

The NSE Prophecy is CPA Wilson Ngugi’s contribution to Africa’s understanding of the pivotal role stock markets across the continent play in assessing prevailing conditions and forecasting the political and economic future of nations.  The author tracks the performance of the Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE) one of the oldest and largest securities market in Africa during the election periods. The book addresses the question on the impact of elections on stock markets performance and the citizens’ quality of life.

Wilson joined USAID/Kenya and East Africa in 2002 as a Financial Analyst. He is a development professional who provides financial management support to various USAID program in the areas of health, economic growth and governance among others. He works closely with local organizations to ensure they meet USAID financial management requirements and are accountable for the funds they receive.

 

Owens, Edgar and Robert Shaw. (1974). Development reconsidered: bridging the gap between government and people. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

ISBN: 0-669-81729-5

 

Poats, Rutherford M. (1973). Technology for Developing Nations: New Directions for U.S.Technical Assistance. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

ISBN: 978-0815771180

Rutherford Poats began his government career in 1961 with the Agency for International Development as Program Director and Special Assistant of the Far East Bureau. He was Deputy Assistant Administrator for Far East (1963-1964) and Assistant Administrator for Far East (1964-1967). In 1967-1970, he was Deputy Administrator and served as Acting Administrator in January-March in 1969. In 1970-1971, he was a Federal executive fellow with the Brookings Institution. He was Vice President of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) in 1971-1974. In the Department of State, he was Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs (1975-1976), and Senior Adviser for Economic Affairs to the Deputy Secretary of State (1976-1977). In 1977-1978, he was Acting President (Senior Vice President) of OPIC. He was a staff member for international economics in the National Security Council at the White House in 1978-1981. In 1981 he was elected Chairman of the Development Assistance Committee in Paris.

 

Radelet, Steven. ( 2003). Challenging Foreign Aid: A Policymaker’s Guide to the Millenium Challenge Account. Center for Global Development. Washington D.C.

In this study, Steven Radelet examines the MCA’s potential promise and possible pitfalls. He offers a rigorous analysis of the MCA’s central challenge: making foreign aid more effective in supporting economic growth and poverty reduction in the poor countries. He systematically explores what makes the MCA different and pinpoints the critical issues that will determine its success or failure. The book concludes with important recommendations about how the MCA should be strengthened to solidify its innovation and independence and to ensure coordination with other US foreign aid programs. Written at a practical level, this book is an invaluable resource for anyone seriously interested in the MCA and US foreign assistance policy.

Dr. Radelet was Chief Economist of USAID from 2010-2012 and is now Director of the Global Human Development Program at Georgetown University’s School of Foreign Service.  He previously served as Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Treasury (1999-2002). From 2002-09 he was Senior Fellow at the Center for Global Development. He spent twelve years with the Harvard Institute for International Development, while teaching in both the Harvard economics department and Kennedy School of Government. While with HIID, he spent four years as resident adviser to the Ministry of Finance in Jakarta, Indonesia, and two years with the Ministry of Finance and Trade in The Gambia. He and his wife served as Peace Corps Volunteers in Western Samoa.

 

Radelet, Steven (2010). Emerging Africa: How 17 Countries are Leading the way. Center for Global Development, Washington D.C.

ISBN: 978-1933286518

Emerging Africa describes the too-often-overlooked positive changes that have taken place in much of Africa since the mid-1990s. In 17 countries, five fundamental and sustained breakthroughs are making old assumptions increasingly untenable:

  • The rise of democracy brought on by the end of the Cold War and apartheid
  • Stronger economic management
  • The end of the debt crisis and a more constructive relationship with the international community
  • The introduction of new technologies, especially mobile phones and the Internet
  • The emergence of a new generation of leaders.

With these significant changes, the countries of emerging Africa seem poised to lead the continent out of the conflict, stagnation, and dictatorships of the past.

 

Radelet, Steven (2015). The Great Surge: The Ascent of the Developing World. Simon and Shuster. New York, New York.

ISBN: 978-1-9767-6478-8 and 978-1-9767-6480-1 (ebook).

The untold story of the global poor today: A distinguished expert and advisor to developing nations reveals how we’ve reduced poverty, increased incomes, improved health, curbed violence, and spread democracy—and how to ensure the improvements continue.

 

We live today at a time of great progress for the global poor. Never before have so many people, in so many developing countries, made so much progress. Most people believe the opposite: that with a few exceptions like China and India, the majority of developing countries are hopelessly mired in deep poverty, led by inept dictators, and living with pervasive famine, widespread disease, constant violence, and little hope for change. But a major transformation is underway—and has been for two decades now. Since the early 1990s more than 700 million people have been lifted out of extreme poverty, six million fewer children die every year from disease, tens of millions more girls are in school, millions more people have access to clean water, and democracy—often fragile and imperfect—has become the norm in developing countries around the world.

 

The Great Surge tells the remarkable story of this unprecedented economic, social, and political transformation. It shows how the end of the Cold War, the development of new technologies, globalization, courageous local leadership, and in some cases, good fortune, have combined to dramatically improve the fate of hundreds of millions of people in poor countries around the world. Most importantly, The Great Surge reveals how we can fight the changing tides of climate change, resource demand, economic and political mismanagement, and demographic pressures to accelerate the political, economic, and social development that has been helping the poorest of the poor around the world.

 

Ravenholt, Reimert T. (2013). World Population Crisis Resolution: Taking Contraceptives to the World’s Poor (Adventures in Epidemiology) (Volume 3). Charleston, SC: CreateSpace.

ISBN: 978-1494288631

A Book for Students and Practitioners of Epidemiology, and Everyone Interested in Resolution of the World Population Crisis: Getting the World on a Safer, Happier Course To the World of Our Dreams. Dr. Ravenholt was director of USAID’s Office of Population from 1965-1979.

 

Riley, Barry. The Political History of American Food Aid: an Uneasy Benevolence“. 2017. Oxford University Press.

ISBN: 9780190228873.

American food aid to foreigners long has been the most visible-and popular-means of providing humanitarian aid to millions of hungry people confronted by war, terrorism and natural cataclysms and the resulting threat-often the reality-of famine and death. This book investigates the little-known, not-well-understood and often highly-contentious political processes which have converted American agricultural production into tools of U.S. government policy.

In The Political History of American Food Aid, Barry Riley, “without doubt the most comprehensive history of US food assistance ever written”, explores the influences of humanitarian, domestic agricultural policy, foreign policy, and national security goals that have created the uneasy relationship between benevolent instincts and the realpolitik of national interests. He traces how food aid has been used from the earliest days of the republic in widely differing circumstances: as a response to hunger, a weapon to confront the expansion of bolshevism after World War I and communism after World War II, a method for balancing disputes between Israel and Egypt, a channel for disposing of food surpluses, a signal of support to friendly governments, and a means for securing the votes of farming constituents or the political support of agriculture sector lobbyists, commodity traders, transporters and shippers.

Riley’s broad sweep provides a profound understanding of the complex factors influencing American food aid policy and a foundation for examining its historical relationship with relief, economic development, food security and its possible future in a world confronting the effects of global climate change.

 

Barry Riley is a Visiting Scholar at the Center on Food Security and the Environment in the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford University. For nearly 50 years, he has been a participant in the domain of foreign economic assistance, first with the USAID, then the World Bank, and finally as a private consultant. In recent decades, he has sought to discover how American international food aid has been shaped and reshaped over two centuries to serve the widely differing objectives of Presidents, legislators, and interest groups operating in quite distinct periods of American history.

 

Riordan, James T. (2011). . We Do Know How: A Buyer-Led Approach to Creating Jobs for the Poor. Vellum Press.

ISBN-10:

This book by a practitioner has been written for practitioners and offers fresh thinking on how to do international development work. It combines that thinking with practical guidance, in plain English, on what to do-and perhaps just as importantly-what not to do on the ground. We Do Know How takes buzzwords commonly used in development circles-“demand-driven,” “results-oriented,” “accountability,” and others-and makes them real, spelling out a proven approach for expanding business sales and generating jobs for poor people. Although government has a role to play in development, in the end the actions of businesses drive economic growth and expand people’s incomes. We Do Know How shows how to build on the incentives that drive businesses and, in the process, create jobs for the poor. Specifically, it urges development practitioners to support only those business opportunities for which there is market demand, abiding by the maxim, “produce what you can sell,” not “sell what you produce.” More than that, it cautions practitioners not to become solutions looking for problems but to search creatively for ways to solve the specific problems that stand most in the way of clients meeting buyers’ requirements. We Do Know How challenges much conventional wisdom on how to do development work. At the same time, and in contrast to other books on development, it shows how, by maintaining focus and discipline, development practitioners can deliver demonstrable increases in jobs for those who need them.

For most of the last 20 years, Riordan was a director at Chemonics International Inc. Dr. Riordan directed USAID/Peru’s Poverty Reduction and Alleviation program, managing business promotion centers in 11 economic corridors in the country’s interior, generating more than $307 million in new sales and created 81,900 new jobs in 4 years. He has a PhD in economics and an MA in international relations from the University of Pennsylvania, and an MA and a BA in mathematics from Fordham University.

 

Rudel, Ludwig. (2005). Foreign Aid: Will It Ever Reach Its Sunset? New York, NY: Foreign Policy Association Headline Series.

ISBN: 978-0871242150

This monograph reviews the state of foreign assistance 50 years after its post-World War II beginnings as short-term assistance to former European colonies gaining independence, and adds some fresh ideas to the debate over its future. Does concessional aid necessarily create dependency? Can it be made to create the basis for its own termination? Not as things presently stand, says Ludwig Rudel. Part of the problem, he observes, is that the distinction between humanitarian assistance and development investment has been blurred if not lost. Further, he argues, major changes in the “aid relationship” between donor and recipient are needed to bring about conditions in which aid programs can achieve their objective of poverty alleviation within a reasonable time frame, and become superfluous. Issued as part of the Foreign Policy Association’s Headline Series, this slim volume is both readable and relevant.

 

Rugh, Andrea B. (2019). Egyptian Advice Columnists: Envisioning the Good Life in an Era of Extremism. DIO Press, Inc.

A few months after religious zealots assassinated President Anwar Sadat in 1981, the Al-Ahram newspaper launched a column responding to letters from Egyptians caught up in the problems of daily living. e columnist, Abdul Wahab al-Mutawa, a self-proclaimed human-ist, published complaints about government services and o ered solutions to personal problems. Al-Ahram also presented advice columns penned by religious sheikhs, most of them a liated with Al-Azhar University, who sought to demonstrate Islam’s relevance to modern life. This book, part of the publisher’s Critical Pedagogies Series, is the first to draw on this rich material to examine the columnists’ prescriptions for leading a good life and their modeling of moderation.

Andrea B. Rugh has been a technical adviser for USAID projects on the Middle East, South Asia and Africa, and was a research associate at Harvard University’s Institute of International Development from 1987 to 1994. She also worked for Save the Children and UNICEF in Pakistan and Afghanistan, and has written 13 books on the cultures and societies of the Middle East.  Mrs. Rugh is the wife of Ambassador (ret.) William A. Rugh, a 30-year Foreign Service veteran who served as chief of mission in Sana’a and Abu Dhabi.

 

Sahley, Caroline. (1995). Strengthening the Capacity of NGOs: Cases of Small Enterprise Development Agencies in Africa. Warwickshire, UK: Intrac.

ISBN: 978-1897748108

A growing proportion of overseas aid resources is flowing through indigenous NGOs in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Concerns about the capacity and performance of many Southern NGOs are leading Northern NGOs and official donors to seek ways of strengthening their partners that extend beyond technical and financial support. Capacity building models that strengthen and empower local NGOs by improving their management ability and organizational capacities are now an essential component of overseas development strategies. This book examines the theory and practice of capacity building. It discusses common organizational challenges facing NGOs and presents in-depth practical case studies. These cases illustrate a range of assistance models designed to increase the organizational capacity of small enterprise development agencies in Africa.

 

Sahley, Caroline and Brian Pratt. (2003). NGO Responses to Urban Poverty: Service Providers or Partners in Planning?. Warwickshire, UK: Intrac.

ISBN: 978-1897748477

This text brings a comparative analysis of the work of urban NGOs in the south based on “The NGO in the City” research project. It considers the roles, relationships, internal organization and program performance of urban NGOs in India, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, South Africa and Peru. Detailed case-studies in the second half of the volume illuminate the critical factors necessary for effective NGO performance in the city and it defines a capacity-building agenda for NGOs to realize this potential in urban poverty alleviation.

From 2002-2005 Caroline Sahley was a Senior Fellow at USAID’s Office of Democracy and Governance under World Learning’s Democracy Fellows Program. She had worked at INTRAC from 1992-2002.

 

Stephenson, James. (2007). Losing the Golden Hour: An Insider’s View of Iraq’s Reconstruction. Dulles, VA: Potomac Books, Inc.

ISBN: 1597971510

In emergency medicine, the “golden hour” is the first hour after injury, during which treatment greatly increases survivability. In post-conflict transition terminology, it is the first year after hostilities end. After that, without steadily improving conditions, popular support declines and chances for real transformation begin to evaporate. In this book, James “Spike” Stephenson, a retired Senior Foreign Service officer who was USAID mission director in Baghdad from February 2004 to March 2005, gives an insider’s perspective on how America lost the golden hour in Iraq. Stephenson’s USAID program, encompassing every area of capacity-building from agriculture and private-sector enterprises to governance, education, health and democracy initiatives.

 

Thompson, Randal Joy and Julia Storberg Walker (eds.).(2018). Leadership and power in international Development: navigating the intersections of gender, culture, context and sustainability. Emerald Publishing.

ISBN: 9781787541160

 

We live in an era of drastic changes in relationships between countries and of unprecedented responses to both old and emerging global challenges. Working alongside leaders in developing countries, leaders in international foreign aid and development organizations, non-governmental organizations, and private foundations and companies have driven dramatic changes in our approach to these challenges and to international development more generally. Yet little has been written from the perspective of the leaders telling their stories about leading and navigating the tangle of forces acting upon the course of international development. And even less is known about how leading in international development contexts should be modelled in a way that fosters the development of the next generation of leaders.

 

Leadership and Power in International Development: Navigating the Intersections of Gender, Culture, Context, and Sustainability brings scholarship up-to-date with practice, collecting the stories and reflections of twenty leaders from Africa, Asia, Europe, Canada, and the United States, many of whom have extensive experience leading within major international organizations. In clear, straightforward narratives, the contributors gathered here highlight their diverse experiences with context, culture, power, gender and sustainability, and they offer strategies and lessons learned derived from their own challenges and successes. Building on these narratives, the book offers a new model or framework for leading in international development contexts.

Through an innovative practice to theory process, the first chapter of the book, written by co-editor Julia Storberg-Walker, provides an original analysis of the chapter narratives, and presents a framework for successfully leading international development projects in the 21st century. The framework can be used for designing leadership development programs as well as for future research in leading in international development contexts. Leadership and Power in International Development is essential reading for development leaders, practitioners, and scholars as they continue to confront the complexity of contemporary power-politics.

 

Randal Joy Thompson is an International Development Professional, and she is the Founder and Principal of the consulting company Excellence, Equity, and Empowerment.  As a USAID Foreign Service Officer for 28 years, Dr. Thompson served in Belarus; Cameroon; Moldova; Morocco; Nicaragua;  Romania; Ukraine; and Washington, DC. She has been Chief of Party for several USAID M&E contracts.

 

Van Dusen, Ann and Pamela R. Johnson. (1994). Poverty Policies: The Role of Research. Lessons from the Health Sector. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

At USAID, Dr. Van Dusen served as the senior career officer in the Bureaus of Policy and Program Coordination, Asia and the Near East, and Global Programs. She was a member of the Senior Executive Service for over ten years and received the both the Distinguished Career Service and Meritorious Presidential Rank Awards in 2001. Among the signal achievements of her USAID career were the creation of a central bureau for global issues, technical assistance and research in the 1990s, and the strengthening and expansion of the central Office of Health in the 1980s in response to both child survival and early HIV/AIDS initiatives. She was later the founding director of GU’s Masters in Global Human Development program.

Link to selected list of her publications

http://explore.georgetown.edu/people/rav/?Action=ViewPublication

 

 

Weihe, Theodore. (2015) Saving Fine Chocolate: Equity, Productivity and Quality in Cocoa Co-ops. E-book.

ISBN: 9781329619067.

Saving Fine Chocolate makes the case that cocoa cooperatives are critical to meeting increasing consumer preferences for Fair Trade, organic and unique favors from countries of origin in Latin America. Unfortunately, the Chocolate Industry and donors do not understand the underlying financial structure of cooperatives in which members must financially contribute equity through delivery of product that is placed in member accounts so that the co-op has capital to grow and provide services and better incomes to its members. Only financially strong cooperatives are able to support productivity programs, such as model farms and field training, and quality improvements such as flavor labs and tasting panels to achieve quality premiums. Plantations or investor-based alternatives are not possible because of land tenure and poor returns since cocoa is grown in remote and sometimes dangerous areas. This innovative approach to co-op equity, productivity and quality was led by Equal Exchange and TCHO Chocolates.

Ted Weihe was a political appointee working in USAID’s office of legislative affairs from 1976 to 1980.  Administrator Peter McPherson then put Weihe in charge of coops as his special assistant until 1981.  After that, he formed and ran the US Overseas Cooperative Development Council for 23 years in which he promoted cooperatives in developing and transition countries.  He served on USAID ACFVA for 17 years through four administrations.

 

Zuvekas, Clarence. Economic Development: An Introduction. (1979) New York: St. Martin’s Press; London: Macmillan, 1979 (Macmillan International College Editions Series).

This introductory undergraduate text is designed to be accessible to students who have had basic economics courses but are not necessarily economics majors.  Although written from an economist’s perspective, it treats economic development as an interdisciplinary subject.  The text provides a balance between theory and policy, leaving space also for historical interpretation, description, and empirical evidence.  Suggested readings at the end of each chapter direct students to studies that explore particular topics in more detail.

Clarence Zuvekas, Jr. received his B.A. in Economics from the Johns Hopkins University in 1961 and a Ph.D. in Economics from Washington University in St. Louis in 1967.  He served as a foreign service officer with USAID in Ecuador (1966-71) and later as a civil servant based in Washington but with extensive travel to Latin America (1979-96).  He has held full-time teaching positions at Westminster College (Missouri) and Minnesota State University—Moorhead, and has taught part-time for the University of New Mexico’s Centro Andino in Quito, American University, the University of Maryland, and the State Department’s Foreign Service Institute.  He has also served as a consultant to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (1976-79) and since his retirement in 1996 has been an independent consultant working on activities funded by USAID and the Inter-American Development Bank.

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